Operation Gomorrah begins: British and Canadian airplanes bomb Hamburg by night, those of the Americans by day. By the end of the operation in November, 9,000 tons of explosives will have killed more than 30,000 people and destroyed 280,000 buildings (1943)
At the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow, U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon and Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev have a "Kitchen Debate" (1959)
President Barack Obama summons House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid concerning hiking the debt ceiling to permit record deficit spending (2011)
b: Simón Bolívar (1783), Jan-Carl Raspe (1944), Richard Trumka (1949); d: William J. Brennan (1997)
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